Cold and Warm Flow

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Cold Flow is our term for fluid or emulsified (non-filament-based) materials which are deposited at room temperature, with or without UV Crosslinking.

Warm Flow is our term for fluid or emulsified (non-filament-based) materials which are deposited at elevated temperatures, with or without UV Crosslinking.

Materials for Cold and Warm Flow

Cold and Warm Flow heads are for printing as follows:

  • With pastes, gels, emulsifiables or waxes.
  • At room or elevated temperatures.
  • With or without UV Crosslining.
  • With Hyrel Nozzles (1.5mm, 2mm) or Luer Tips.

The following materials can be printed from Cold Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips.

The following materials can be printed from Warm Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips, or may print more easily at higher temperatures.

Heads for Cold and Warm Flow

Cold Flow is available through the following heads:

Warm Flow is available through the following heads:

EMO-Type Head Comparison
Temperature > Down to -5°C > Ambient Up to 75°C Up to 100°C Up to 130°C Up to 180°C Up to 250°C
No Crosslinking RSD-30 EMO-25
SDS-5, -10,
SDS-30, -60
SMH-2
HSD-30 HSD-10 VOL-25 KRA-15
KR2-15
TAM-15
With Crosslinking RCS-30 COD-25
CSD-5, -10, CSD-30, -60
HCS-30 HCS-10 VCD-25 KCD-15
KC2-15
TCD-15

So, what do these goofy designations actually stand for?

EMO: Emulsifiables at Room Temperature - Low to Medium Viscosity
COD: Emulsifiables T Room Temperature with Crosslink On Demand - Low to Medium Viscosity
VOL: Volcano: Heated (up to 100°C) Emulsifiables - Low to Medium Viscosity
VCD: Volcanic Crosslink on Demand - Low to Medium Viscosity
KRA: Krakatoa: Heated (up to 200°C) Emulsifiables - High Viscosity
KCD: Krakatoic Crosslink on Demand - High Viscosity
KR2: Krakatoa v2: a more robust KRA head with a double gasketed plunger hotter, more viscous Emulsifiables - Very High Viscosity
KC2: Krakatoic Crosslink v2; KR2 with Crosslink - Very High Viscosity
TAM: Tambora: Heated (up to 300°C) Emulsifiables - High Viscosity
TCD: Tamboric Crosslink on Demand - High Viscosity
SDS: Syringe Dispensing System (uses disposable plastic syringes at room temperature) - Low Viscosity
CSD: Crosslinking Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
HSD: Heated (formerly Volcanic) Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
RSD: Refrigerated Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
CHS: Crosslinking Heated (formerly Volcanic) Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
CRS: Crosslinking Refrigerated Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
DSD: Dual Syringe Dispenser, dispensing two-part mixtures at a fixed ratio - Low to Medium Viscosity
SMH: Static Mixing Head, blending your ratio of material through a baffled nozzle - Low to Medium Viscosity

As of May, 2018, for S30 and ESR, the latest firmware is 32V, included with Repetrel 2.865; for EHR and Hydras, the latest firmware is the same, with Repetrel 3.075_A.

Research Papers Citing Hyrel Cold and Warm Flow

These are now listed by year here.

Firmware Versions for Cold and Warm Flow Heads

As of May, 2018, the following versions should be used for Repetrel versions 2.x and 3.x:

Use _TUBES_35K.hex :

  • For all emulsion heads performing prime/unprime actions.
  • For all emulsion heads with COD LED activity on constantly.

Use _TUBES_49V.hex :

  • For all emulsion heads using Clench Valves instead of prime/unprime actions.
  • For all emulsion heads using COD LED activity tied to printing moves only.

Use _FIL_250_PLAT_1A.hex :

  • For heated emulsions heads which don't seem to reach max temperature.

Settings for Cold and Warm Flow Heads

Non-Hydra units shipping through spring 2017 ship with Repetrel version 2.x. Hydra units, and other units shipping as of summer 2017 will have version 3.x, and should consult the version 3.x tables, below. All units should be upgraded to 3.x when it is available. If you run a head with v2 settings on a v3 install, the background will flash red; please make the two changes below:

Values for version 2.x will be inicated in this manner.
Values for version 3.x will be inicated in this manner.

Some settings for the EMO-Type heads (like temperature, prime/unprime values) will vary, depending on what material you are printing with. Nozzle diameter should accurately reflect what nozzle you have loaded (1.6mm is default) AND what path width you sliced for. Temperature commands will be ignored by heads with no temperature control. Having said that, below are our default shipping settings.

METAL Reservoir Heads

Settings for Cold and Warm Flow Heads with METAL Reservoirs
Settings EMO, VOL, KRA, COD, VCD, KCD Heads and New KR2
(17mm Tubes, Various Gear Ratios)
19:1 Ratio 27:1 Ratio 51:1 Ratio 100:1 KRA 100:1 KR2
Material
Type Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom
Color (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Nozzle 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600
Layer 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.300
Temp Info
Print Temp 35 35 35 35 35
Power Factor 100 100 100 100 100
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 0/100/200 0/100/200 0/100/200 0/100/200 0/100/200
Overrides
Pulses: v2.x 1.6 2.3 4.7 9.0 15.0
Pulses: v3.x 176 256 517 990 1650
Feed Rate % 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Prime
Please note that Prime values will vary greatly from those shown, depending on the compressibility of your material.
Steps 600 800 1000 3000 6000
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms) 100 100 100 300 600
Before Tool Change 1 1 1 1 1
Unprime
Please note that Unprime values will vary greatly from those shown, depending on the compressibility of your material.
Steps 500 650 800 2500 5000
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms): v2.x 100 100 100 250 500
Dwell Time (ms): v3.x -100 -100 -100 -250 -500
After Tool Change 1 1 1 1 1
Offsets
Clone Head Off Off Off Off Off
X 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Y 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Z 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Head Info
Model (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies)
RTD Type 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD
Motor Current High High High High High
Step Mode Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth
Settings 19:1 Ratio 27:1 Ratio 51:1 Ratio 100:1 Ratio 100:1 KR2
EMO, VOL, KRA, COD, VCD, KCD Heads and New KR2
(17mm Tubes, Various Gear Ratios)

PLASTIC Reservoir Heads

Settings for Cold and Warm Flow Heads with PLASTIC Reservoirs
Settings SDS, CSD, HSD, and CHS Heads
(Various Tube Diameters, Standard Gear Ratios)
DSD-50 (1:1)
1cc ET 5cc 10cc 30cc 60cc DSD-50
Material
Type Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom
Color (any) (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Nozzle 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600
Layer 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.300 0.300
Temp Info
Print Temp 0 0 0 0*
*35 for HSD
0 0
Power Factor 100 100 100 100 100 100
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 0 0 0 0*
*75 for HSD
0 0
Overrides
Pulses: v2.x 5.80 0.75 0.58 0.225 0.15 0.15
Pulses: v3.x 610 81 62.5 24.3 10 10
Feed Rate % 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Prime
Please note that Prime values will vary greatly from those shown, depending on the compressibility of your material.
Steps 500 200 200 300 300 1
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms) 100 100 100 100 100 1
Before Tool Change 1 1 1 1 1 1
Unprime
Please note that Unprime values will vary greatly from those shown, depending on the compressibility of your material.
Steps 400 160 160 225 225 1
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms): v2.x 100 100 100 100 100 1
Dwell Time (ms): v3.x -100 -100 -100 -100 -100 -1
After Tool Change 1 1 1 1 1 1
Offsets
Clone Head Off Off Off Off Off Off
X 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Y 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Z 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Head Info
Model (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies)
RTD Type 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD 1k PLAT_RTD
Motor Current High High High High High High
Step Mode Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixteenth
Settings 1cc ET 5cc 10cc 30cc 60cc DSD-50
SDS, CSD, HSD, and CHS Heads
(Various Tube Diameters, Standard Gear Ratios)
DSD-50 (1:1)