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|+ Printer Model Comparison
 
|+ Printer Model Comparison
 
! style="width: 10%" rowspan="2"|Designation
 
! style="width: 10%" rowspan="2"|Designation
! style="width: 20%" colspan="3"|[[Hydras|Hydra]] Freestanding (Floor) Models<br>''formerly the 16A''
+
! style="width: 20%" colspan="2"|[[Hydras|Hydra]] 16A Freestanding <br> Heated
! style="width: 10%"|[[Hydras|Hydra]] Bench top Model<br>''formerly the 17A''
+
! style="width: 10%"|Benchtop, Enclosed <br> ''Heating Optional''
! style="width: 10%"|Benchtop, Enclosed
+
 
! style="width: 10%"|Desktop, Unenclosed
 
! style="width: 10%"|Desktop, Unenclosed
! style="width: 10%"|Desktop, High Precision
+
! style="width: 10%"|Desktop, High Precision <br> Unenclosed
 
|-
 
|-
! [[Hydras|Hydra]] 430
+
! Standard [[Hydras|Hydra]]  
! [[Hydras|Hydra]] 640
+
! Tall [[Hydras|Hydra]] <br>''Optional''
! [[Hydras|Hydra]] 645
+
! [[Hydras|Hydra]] 340
+
 
! [[Systems|System 30M]]
 
! [[Systems|System 30M]]
 
! [[Engines|Engine SR]]
 
! [[Engines|Engine SR]]
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|-
 
|-
 
! Target <br> Users
 
! Target <br> Users
| colspan="3" | Industrial Manufacturing
+
| colspan="2" | Industrial Manufacturing
| Commercial Manufacturing
+
 
| Laboratory Research
 
| Laboratory Research
 
| Budget Research
 
| Budget Research
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|-
 
|-
 
! Image
 
! Image
| colspan="3" | <gallery>File:Hydra_16A.png</gallery>
+
| colspan="2" | <gallery>File:Hydra_16A.png</gallery>  
| <gallery>File:17A.png</gallery>
+
 
| <gallery>File:S30M.jpg</gallery>
 
| <gallery>File:S30M.jpg</gallery>
 
| <gallery>File:ENG.jpg</gallery>
 
| <gallery>File:ENG.jpg</gallery>
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|-
 
|-
 
! Placement<br>Mechanism
 
! Placement<br>Mechanism
| colspan="3" | Freestanding (Floor) Model<br>Gantry Design
+
| colspan="2" | Freestanding (Floor) Model<br>Gantry Design  
| Benchtop Model<br>Gantry Design  
+
 
| Benchtop Model<br>Knee Design
 
| Benchtop Model<br>Knee Design
| Desktop Model<br>Knee Design
+
| colspan="2" | Desktop Model<br>Knee Design
| Desktop Model<br>Knee Design
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Exterior Dimensions, <br> XxYxZ (closed)
 
! Exterior Dimensions, <br> XxYxZ (closed)
| colspan="3" | 48x35x68 in <br> 1200x875x1400 mm
+
| 48x35x50 in <br> 120x88x125 cm
| 41x27x28 in <br> 104x69x71mm
+
| 48x35x60 in <br> 120x88x153 cm
| 34x16x32 in <br> 565x405x810 mm
+
| 34x16x32 in <br> 565x405x810 cm
| 13x21x22 in <br> 330x530x560
+
| 13x21x22 in <br> 330x530x560 cm
| 13x24x22 in <br> 330x600x560
+
| 13x24x22 in <br> 330x600x560 cm
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Power <br> Requirements
 
! Power <br> Requirements
| colspan="3" | 15A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 8A / 220VAC / 50Hz  
+
| colspan="2" | 15A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 8A / 220VAC / 50Hz  
| 15A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 8A / 220VAC / 50Hz
+
| colspan="3" | 10A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 5A / 220VAC / 50Hz  
| 15A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 8A / 220VAC / 50Hz | 10A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 5A / 220VAC / 50Hz
+
| 10A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 5A / 220VAC / 50Hz
+
| 10A / 110VAC / 60 Hz <br> 5A / 220VAC / 50Hz  
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Build Volume
 
! Build Volume
| 16x12x10 in <br> 400x300x250 mm
+
| 16x12x10 in <br> 400x300x250 mm <br> '''or'''<br> 24x16x10 in <br> 600x400x250 mm
| 24x16x10 in <br> 600x400x250 mm
+
| 16x12x20 in <br> 600x400x500 mm <br> '''or''' <br> 24x16x20 in <br> 600x400x500 mm
| 24x16x20 in <br> 600x400x500 mm
+
| colspan="2" | 8x8x8 in <br> 200x200x200 mm
| 12x16x10 in <br> 300x400x250 mm
+
| 8x8x8 in <br> 200x200x200 mm
+
| 8x8x8 in <br> 200x200x200 mm
+
 
| 4x4x4 in <br> 100x100x100 mm
 
| 4x4x4 in <br> 100x100x100 mm
 +
|-
 +
! Bed <br> Temperatures
 +
| colspan="2" | 120°C - 200°C option - sub-ambient option <br> ''Note that 200°C beds larger than 400x300mm <br> require 230VAC for optimal heating.''
 +
| colspan="2" | 75°C
 +
| 75°C - sub-ambient option
 
|-
 
|-
 
! X/Y Printing<br> Speeds
 
! X/Y Printing<br> Speeds
| colspan="3" | Up to 50 mm/sec
+
| colspan="2" | Up to 60 mm/sec
| Up to 50 mm/sec
+
| colspan="2" | Up to 30 mm/sec
| Up to 30 mm/sec
+
| Up to 30 mm/sec
+
 
| Up to 15 mm/sec
 
| Up to 15 mm/sec
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Enclosure
 
! Enclosure
| colspan="3" | Heated
+
| colspan="2" | Heated to 55°C
| Heated
+
| Enclosed <br> ''*Opt Heated to 55°C''
| Enclosed <br> ''*Opt Heated''
+
| colspan="2" | Unenclosed
| Unenclosed
+
| Unenclosed
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Motion Control
 
! Motion Control
| colspan="3" | 3-Phase with <br> Closed-Loop Feedback
+
| colspan="2" | 3-Phase with <br> Closed-Loop Feedback
| 3-Phase with <br> Closed-Loop Feedback
+
| colspan="3" | 0.9° Stepping Motor
| 0.9° Stepping Motor
+
| 0.9° Stepping Motor
+
| 0.9° Stepping Motor
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Positional Resolution <br> X/Y/Z in µm
 
! Positional Resolution <br> X/Y/Z in µm
| colspan="3" | 6 / 6 / 1
+
| colspan="2" | 6 / 6 / 1
| 6 / 6 / 1
+
| colspan="2" | 5 / 5 / 1
| 5 / 5 / 1
+
| 5 / 5 / 1
+
 
| 1.25 / 1.25 / 1
 
| 1.25 / 1.25 / 1
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Positional Accuracy <br> X/Y/Z in µm
 
! Positional Accuracy <br> X/Y/Z in µm
| colspan="3" | 60 / 60 / 10
+
| colspan="2" | 60 / 60 / 10
| 60 / 60 / 10
+
| colspan="2" | 50 / 50 / 10
| 50 / 50 / 10
+
| 50 / 50 / 10
+
 
| 12 / 12 / 10
 
| 12 / 12 / 10
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Positional Repeatability <br> X/Y/Z in µm
 
! Positional Repeatability <br> X/Y/Z in µm
| colspan="3" | 60 / 60 / 10
+
| colspan="2" | 60 / 60 / 10
| 60 / 60 / 10
+
| colspan="2" | 50 / 50 / 10
| 50 / 50 / 10
+
| 50 / 50 / 10
+
 
| 12 / 12 / 10
 
| 12 / 12 / 10
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Precise X/Y Output <br> for Bioplots
 
! Precise X/Y Output <br> for Bioplots
| colspan="3" | 100 µm lines <br> 200 µm spacing
+
| colspan="4" | 100 µm lines <br> 200 µm spacing
| 100 µm lines <br> 200 µm spacing
+
| '''50 µm lines <br> 100 µm spacing'''
| 100 µm lines <br> 200 µm spacing
+
| 100 µm lines <br> 200 µm spacing
+
| 50 µm lines <br> 100 µm spacing
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Precise Z output <br> for Bioplots
 
! Precise Z output <br> for Bioplots
| colspan="3" | 25 µm layers
+
| colspan="5" | 25 µm layers
| 25 µm layers
+
| 25 µm layers
+
| 25 µm layers
+
| 25 µm layers
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Tool Positions <br> ''Optional''
 
! Tool Positions <br> ''Optional''
| colspan="3" | Five <br> ''Ten''
+
| colspan="2" | Five <br> ''Ten''
 +
| colspan="2" | Four
 
| Five
 
| Five
| Four
 
| Four
 
| Four
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Cold Flow <br> Options
 
! Cold Flow <br> Options
|colspan="7"| All [[EMO]], [[COD]], [[SDS]], [[CSD]], DSD and SMH Heads
+
|colspan="5"| All [[EMO]], [[COD]], [[SDS]], [[CSD]], DSD and SMH Heads
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Warm Flow <br> Options
 
! Warm Flow <br> Options
|colspan="7"| All [[VOL]], [[VCD]], [[KRA]] and [[KCD]] Heads
+
|colspan="5"| All [[VOL]], [[VCD]], [[KRA]] and [[KCD]] Heads
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Hot Flow <br> Options
 
! Hot Flow <br> Options
|colspan="7"| All [[MK1-250]], [[MK2-250]] and [[MK1-450]] Heads
+
|colspan="6"| All [[MK1-250]], [[MK2-250]] and [[MK1-450]] Heads
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Low Power <br> Laser Options
 
! Low Power <br> Laser Options
|colspan="7"| 5w, 808nm, AlGaAs Diode and/or 6w, 450nm, GaN Diode
+
|colspan="5"| 6w, 450nm, GaN Diode and 2w, 450nm GaN Diode
 
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! High Power <br> Laser Options
 
! High Power <br> Laser Options
| colspan="3" | 40w ~10 µm, CO<sub>2</sub> <br> 80w, ~10µm, CO<sub>2</sub>
+
| colspan="2" | 40w ~10 µm, CO<sub>2</sub>
| ''Not Applicable''
+
| colspan="3" | ''Not Applicable''
| ''Not Applicable''
+
| ''Not Applicable''
+
| ''Not Applicable''
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Spindle Tool <br> Compatibility
 
! Spindle Tool <br> Compatibility
| colspan="3" | Standard <br> Three-Phase
+
| colspan="2" | Standard <br> Three-Phase
| Standard
+
| colspan="2" | Standard
| Standard
+
| Standard
+
 
| ''Not Applicable''
 
| ''Not Applicable''
 +
|-
 +
! Max Axes
 +
| colspan="2" | X, Y, Z, A, B, C
 +
| colspan="3" | X, Y, Z
 +
|-
 +
! Pick & Place <br> Compatibility
 +
| colspan="2" | Yes
 +
| colspan="3" | No
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Other <br> Options
 
! Other <br> Options
|colspan="7"|Quiet Storm Fan, Microscope
+
|colspan="5"|Quiet Storm Fan, Microscope
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==== The [[Hydras|Hydra]] Series  ====
 
==== The [[Hydras|Hydra]] Series  ====
  
The [[Hydras|Hydra]] series ''formerly the [[Model 16A]] and 17A'' has hard resolution (with encoder feedback) of 20 microns in the X and Y, and 0.8 microns in the Z in standard mode. In microstepping mode, we can achieve soft resolution of 4 microns in the X and Y. It comes standard with two tool positions, but can take additional yokes to handle more.
+
The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 16A models have hard resolution (with encoder feedback) of 20 microns in the X and Y, and 0.8 microns in the Z in standard mode. In microstepping mode, we can achieve soft resolution of 4 microns in the X and Y. It comes standard with two tool positions, but can take additional yokes to handle more.
 +
 
 +
There are three models, as detailed above. The differences are:
  
There are four models, as detailed above. The differences are:
+
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 16A-S (standard) has a 250mm Z and stands on the floor, with the following options:
 +
** Can take a bed at 400x300mm or 600x400mm at 120°C or 200°C, or a sub-ambient bed;
 +
** Can take the 40W CO2 laser and 5W, 450nm diode laser;
 +
** Can take the Pick and Place setup; and
 +
** Can take the 3-Phase and 1-Phase spindle tools.
  
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 340 sits on a countertop, has a 300x400x250mm build volume, and has no CO2 laser option.
+
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 16A-T (tall) has a 500mm Z and stands on the floor, with the following options:
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 430 stands on the floor, has a 400x300x250mm build volume, and has 40w and 80w CO2 laser options.
+
** Can take a bed at 400x300mm or 600x400mm at 120°C or 200°C, or a sub-ambient bed;
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 640 stands on the floor, has a 600x400x250mm build volume, and has 40w and 80w CO2 laser options.
+
** Can take the 5W, 450nm diode laser (NO CO2 LASER);
* The [[Hydras|Hydra]] 645 stands on the floor, has a 400x400x500mm build volume, and has 40w and 80w CO2 laser options.
+
** Can take the Pick and Place setup; and
 +
** Can take the 3-Phase and 1-Phase spindle tools.
  
 
* [[File:Yt.png]] [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uACoqtNbXE0 Overview of the [[Hydras|Hydra]] line]
 
* [[File:Yt.png]] [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uACoqtNbXE0 Overview of the [[Hydras|Hydra]] line]
Line 330: Line 309:
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
! CSD-05
+
! HSD-10-Ardes
 
| Liquid, Gel
 
| Liquid, Gel
 
| Low
 
| Low
| 3:1
+
| 3:1 ?
| 05cc
+
| Polypropylene
+
| Ambient
+
| Yes
+
| n/a
+
|-
+
! CSD-10
+
| Liquid, Gel
+
| Low
+
| 3:1
+
 
| 10cc
 
| 10cc
| Polypropylene
+
| Polyamide
| Ambient
+
| Up to 130°C
| Yes
+
| ''Optional''
| n/a
+
|-
+
! CSD-30
+
| Liquid, Gel
+
| Low
+
| 3:1
+
| 30cc
+
| Polypropylene
+
| Ambient
+
| Yes
+
| n/a
+
|-
+
! CSD-60
+
| Liquid, Gel
+
| Low
+
| 3:1
+
| 60cc
+
| Polypropylene
+
| Ambient
+
| Yes
+
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
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| 30cc
 
| 30cc
 
| Polypropylene
 
| Polypropylene
| Up to 75°C
+
| Up to 60°C
 
| ''Optional''
 
| ''Optional''
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
! HSD-10-Ardes
+
! RSD-30-BD
| Liquid, Gel
+
| Low
+
| 3:1 ?
+
| 30cc
+
| Polyamide
+
| Up to 130°C
+
| ''Optional''
+
| n/a
+
|-
+
! CHS-30
+
 
| Liquid, Gel
 
| Liquid, Gel
 
| Low
 
| Low
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| 30cc
 
| 30cc
 
| Polypropylene
 
| Polypropylene
| Up to 75°C
+
| Down to 5°C
| Yes
+
| ''Optional''
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
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| Ambient
 
| Ambient
 
| ''Optional''
 
| ''Optional''
| n/a
 
|-
 
! COD-25
 
| Liquid, Gel, Paste
 
| Low to Medium
 
| 19:1
 
| 25cc
 
| Aluminum
 
| Ambient
 
| Yes
 
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
Line 430: Line 359:
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
! VCD-25
+
! KRA-15
| Liquid, Gel, Paste
+
| Low to Medium
+
| 51:1
+
| 25cc
+
| Aluminum
+
| Up to 100°C
+
| Yes
+
| n/a
+
|-
+
! KRA-25
+
 
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
 
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
 
| Medium to High
 
| Medium to High
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| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
! KCD-25
+
! KR2-15
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
+
| Medium to High
+
| 100:1
+
| 15cc
+
| Stainless
+
| Up to 200°C*
+
| Yes
+
| n/a
+
|-
+
! KR2-25
+
 
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
 
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
 
| Medium to High
 
| Medium to High
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| Up to 200°C*
 
| Up to 200°C*
 
| ''Optional''
 
| ''Optional''
| n/a
 
|-
 
! KC2-25
 
| Paste, Clay, Hot Glue
 
| Medium to High
 
| 100:1
 
| 15cc
 
| Stainless
 
| Up to 200°C*
 
| Yes
 
 
| n/a
 
| n/a
 
|-
 
|-
Line 490: Line 389:
 
| 5w, 808nm
 
| 5w, 808nm
 
|-
 
|-
! LA6-8450
+
! LA6-450
 
| Opaque
 
| Opaque
 
| Laser
 
| Laser
Line 530: Line 429:
 
| 5,000 rpm with no load
 
| 5,000 rpm with no load
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
Note, for crosslinking heads, just see the standard heads and add the UV LED mechanism.
  
 
==== The Cold Flow Process ====
 
==== The Cold Flow Process ====
Line 651: Line 552:
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Cold Flow =====
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Cold Flow =====
  
* [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8095878/ Design and Additive Manufacturing of Multi-Permeability Magnetic Cores], in [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=8085404 2017 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)]
+
These are now listed by year '''[[Research_Papers | here]]'''.
* [http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acsami.7b07189 Combustion-Assisted Photonic Annealing of Printable Graphene Inks via Exothermic Binders], by a team from [http://www.northwestern.edu/ Northwestern Univeristy]
+
* [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbm.a.36184/full In Vitro Evaluation of 3D Bbioprinted Tri-Polymer Network Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration], by Stephanie Bendtsen and Mei Wei, in The [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1552-4965 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A]  
+
* [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7999867/?reload=true Self-Actuating 3D Printed Packaging for Deployable Antennas], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cctc.201700829/full Enabling Process Intensification via 3D Printing of Catalytic Structures] by Muxina Konarova (and others), [http://uq.edu.au University of Queensland]
+
* [https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/3dp-2017-0004?journalCode=3dp 3D Bioprinting for Musculoskeletal Applications] by Alexander Popov, Sara Malferrari, & Deepak M Kalaskar in [https://www.futuremedicine.com Future Medicine]
+
* [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7939416/ UV-assisted 3D-printing of Soft Ferrite Magnetic Components for Power Electronics Integration] by Dr. Y. Yan (and others), [http://vt.edu Virginia Tech]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Alginate_Hydrogels_for_Bone_Tissue_Regeneration.pdf Alginate Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Regeneration] by Stephanie T. Bendtsen of [http://uconn.edu The University of Connecticut]
+
*[http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1758-5090/aa7077/meta Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Grafts with Multi-Material 3D Printing] by Nicholas Sears et. al., of the [https://engineering.tamu.edu/biomedical Biomedical Engineering Department] of [http://www.tamu.edu/ Texas A&M University].
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Additive_Manufacturing_of_Magnetic_Components_for_Heterogeneous_Integration.pdf Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Components for Heterogeneous Integration] by Dr. Y. Yan (and others), [http://vt.edu Virginia Tech]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Tuskegee_Eggshell.pdf Nanoengineered Eggshell–Silver Tailored Copolyester Polymer Blend Film with Antimicrobial Properties] by the [http://www.tuskegee.edu/academics/colleges/ceps/ceps_special_programs/phd_program_in_materials_science_engineering.aspx Department of Materials Science and Engineering] and the Department of Pathobiology, [http://www.tuskegee.edu/academics/colleges/cvmnah/school_of_veterinary_medicine.aspx College of Veterinary Medicine] of [http://www.tuskegee.edu Tuskegee University]
+
*[http://www.ieeeconfpublishing.org/cpir/UploadedFiles/Additive%20Manufacturing%20of%20Magnetic%20Components%20for%20Heterogeneous%20Integration.pdf Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Components for Heterogeneous Integration] by Dr. Y. Yan (and others), [http://vt.edu Virginia Tech]
+
*[https://www.mpif.org/cpmt/studentprojects/Scholar_work_2015-02.pdf Die-Less MIM-style Additive Manufacturing with Controlled Porosity: A Proof of Concept] by the [http://www.lehigh.edu/matsci/ Department of Materials Science and Engineering] of [http://www1.lehigh.edu/home Lehigh University]
+
*[https://www.dst.defence.gov.au/sites/default/files/events/documents/WCSD%20Presentation.pdf 3D Printed Energetics] by the [https://www.dst.defence.gov.au/research-division/weapons-and-combat-systems-division Weapons and Combat Systems Division] of the [http://defence.gov.au Australian Department of Defense]
+
*[http://www.anzors.org.au/pdfs/2014-proceedings.pdf Development of 3D printed Ceramic scaffolds for Treatment of Segmental Bone Defects] from [http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/research/centres/biomaterials-tissue-engineering/ The Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research Unit] of the [http://web.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/index.php Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering Department] of [http://sydney.edu.au The University of Sydney]
+
*[https://www.biomaterials.org/sites/default/files/docs/2015/graduate_abstracts.pdf Graduate Abstract: Dynamic increase in matrix stiffness promotes invasive tumor phenotype in vivo] from multiple organizations, at [https://www.biomaterials.org BioMaterials.org]
+
*[http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.surfaces.org/resource/collection/4423FA75-D640-4955-A412-240A38EF1FAA/2015_Elizabeth_Cosgriffpdf.pdf 3D Printing of High Porosity, Biodegradable Foams with Cure on Dispense] - Presentation by Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernández of [https://engineering.tamu.edu/biomedical Department of Biomedical Engineering], [http://www.tamu.edu Texas A&M University]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Design_Meth_Additive_Mfg_Magnetic_Comp_YYan_2017.pdf Design Methodology and Materials for Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Components] - PhD Thesis of Y. Yan, [http://vt.edu Virginia Tech]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Sydney_Bioprinting_Presentation.pptx Bioprinting Defined Heterogeneous Cellular Microenvironments] from [http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/research/centres/biomaterials-tissue-engineering/ The Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research Unit] of the [http://web.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/index.php Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering Department] of [http://sydney.edu.au The University of Sydney]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/3D-4D_Printing_and_Stretchable_Conductive_Adhesives.pdf A Novel Approach to Integrating 3D/4D Printing and Stretchable Conductive Adhesive Technologies for High Frequency Packaging Applications]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Additive_Manufacturing_of_Planar_Inductor.pdf Additive Manufacturing of Planar Inductor for Power Electronics Applications]
+
*[http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn507488s Bioactive Nanoengineered Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Growth-Factor-Free Approach] in [http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en.html The American Chemical Society's] [http://pubs.acs.org/journal/ancac3 ACS Nano]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/3D_Printed_Scaffolds_to_Repair_Large_Bone_Deficits.pdf Design and Fabrication of 3D Printed Scaffolds with a Mechanical Strength Comparable to Cortical Bone to Repair Large Bone Defects] in [http://www.nature.com/index.html Nature.com's] [http://www.nature.com/srep/ Scientific Reports]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Eumlsion_Inks_for_3D_Printing.pdf Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials] in the [http://www.frontiersin.org/10.3389/conf.FBIOE.2016.01.02721/2893/10th_World_Biomaterials_Congress/all_events/event_abstract Macromolecular Journals]
+
  
 
==== The Warm Flow Process ====
 
==== The Warm Flow Process ====
Line 757: Line 635:
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Warm Flow =====
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Warm Flow =====
  
* [http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b02540 Nanoengineered Colloidal Inks for 3D Bioprinting] in [http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en.html The American Chemical Society's] [http://pubs.acs.org/journal/langd5 Langmuir]
+
These are now listed by year '''[[Research_Papers | here]]'''.
*[http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.7b11851 4D Printing of Liquid Crystal Elastomers] in [http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en.html The American Chemical Society's] [http://pubs.acs.org/journal/aamick ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces]
+
*[http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/app.45083/full&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm08tdsc-a6hdNeaw1xB7JInXsZCeg&nossl=1&oi=scholaralrt Influence of Shear Thinning and Material Flow on Robotic Dispensing of PEG] in [http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en.html The American Chemical Society's] [http://pubs.acs.org/journal/ancac3 ACS Nano]
+
  
 
==== The Hot Flow Process ====
 
==== The Hot Flow Process ====
Line 841: Line 717:
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Hot Flow =====
 
===== '''Research Papers''' Citing Hyrel Hot Flow =====
  
* [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-017-1340-8 Effects of Material Properties on Warpage in Fused Deposition Modeling Parts] in [https://link.springer.com/journal/170 The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology]
+
These are now listed by year '''[[Research_Papers | here]]'''.
* [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10443-017-9661-1 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Boron Nitride – ABS Composites], in [https://link.springer.com/journal/10443 Applied Composite Materials]
+
* [http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/17/9/2068/htm Review of Batteryless Wireless Sensors Using Additively Manufactured Microwave Resonators] in [http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors Sensors], a Journal of the [http://www.mdpi.com/ Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute]
+
*[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331332/ Dynamical Majorana edge modes in a broad class of topological mechanical systems] by [http://www.njit.edu The New Jersey Institute of Technology]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Low-Cost,_Single_Platform,_Hybrid_Mfg_System_for_Hybrid_Passives.pdf A Low-Cost, Single Platform, Hybrid Manufacturing System for RF Passives], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/RFID_Tag_Combining_3D_and_Inkjet_Printing.pdf Button-Shaped RFID Tag Combining Three-Dimensional and Inkjet Printing Technologies], [http://digital-library.theiet.org/content/journals/iet-map The IET Digital Library].
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Fully_3D-Printed_RF_Structures.pdf Demonstration and Characterization of Fully 3D-printed RF Structures], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/NinjaFlex_Filament_for_Antenna_Applications.pdf Infill Dependent 3D-Printed Material Based on NinjaFlex Filament for Antenna Applications], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Novel_Strain_Sensor_Based_on_3D_Printing.pdf A Novel Strain Sensor Based on 3D Printing Technology and 3D Antenna Design], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/3D_Printed_Loop_Antenna_for_Wearable_and_IoT_Applications.pdf A Novel 3-D Printed Loop Antenna Using Flexible NinjaFlex Material for Wearable and IoT Applications], [http://www.ieee.org/index.html The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE)]
+
* [http://hyrel3d.net/papers/RF_Characterization_of...NinjaFlex.pdf RF Characterization of 3D Printed Flexible Materials - NinjaFlex Filaments], [http://www.eumwa.org/en/euma/ The European Microwave Association (EuMA)]
+
*[http://hyrel3d.net/papers/Nano-Material_Based_Flexible_RF_Sensors.pdf Nano-Material Based Flexible Radio Frequency Sensors for Wearable Health and Environment Monitoring: Designs and Prototypes Utilizing 3D/Inkjet Printing Technologies], A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty of [https://www.ece.gatech.edu/ The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Georgia Tech]
+
  
 
=== '''Other Accessories''' ===
 
=== '''Other Accessories''' ===

Latest revision as of 11:02, 3 September 2018

Welcome to Hyrel!

With literally thousands of materials to print on the Hyrel Printer, we have broken down the list of materials into logical groups based on their printing temperature and type of head used to print them.

A quick intro to many of the functions of a Hyrel printer can be found here.

If you are planning on using the heads which photoinitiate crosslinking, make sure you specify the correct wavelength of LED for your material.

A standard material printing data sheet has been created for many of the materials that have been internally tested; you can access this data by clicking here.

Always be sure of what material you are using, and what will be off-gassed.

Our current price list can be found here.

Testimonials

We are happy to share testimonials from the following institutions:

Software and Firmware

Our equipment runs our proprietary Repetrel software and firmware. This was not done to be difficult, but because we didn't want to be restricted by the limitations of other printers. This is how we have the ability to adjust things like the Z position and material flow rate during a print. For a more in-depth look, please see the Repetrel page. To download and install, please see the Software page.

Hardware

There are two categories: Printers and Heads (or Accessories).

Printers

As of May, 2017, Hyrel Printers are available in the following models: Hydras are our larger, gantry models; Systems are our tabletop, enclosed models; and Engines are the smaller, unenclosed models - available in High Resolution (HR) and Standard Resolution (SR) versions.

All models use our Repetrel software and any slicer (Slic3r support provided). Each model comes with a Windows PC, either tablet or full desktop style. We operate our print heads via CANbus.

Comparison

The following chart compares and contrasts the various models:

Printer Model Comparison
Designation Hydra 16A Freestanding
Heated
Benchtop, Enclosed
Heating Optional
Desktop, Unenclosed Desktop, High Precision
Unenclosed
Standard Hydra Tall Hydra
Optional
System 30M Engine SR Engine HR
Target
Users
Industrial Manufacturing Laboratory Research Budget Research Biological Research
Image
Placement
Mechanism
Freestanding (Floor) Model
Gantry Design
Benchtop Model
Knee Design
Desktop Model
Knee Design
Exterior Dimensions,
XxYxZ (closed)
48x35x50 in
120x88x125 cm
48x35x60 in
120x88x153 cm
34x16x32 in
565x405x810 cm
13x21x22 in
330x530x560 cm
13x24x22 in
330x600x560 cm
Power
Requirements
15A / 110VAC / 60 Hz
8A / 220VAC / 50Hz
10A / 110VAC / 60 Hz
5A / 220VAC / 50Hz
Build Volume 16x12x10 in
400x300x250 mm
or
24x16x10 in
600x400x250 mm
16x12x20 in
600x400x500 mm
or
24x16x20 in
600x400x500 mm
8x8x8 in
200x200x200 mm
4x4x4 in
100x100x100 mm
Bed
Temperatures
120°C - 200°C option - sub-ambient option
Note that 200°C beds larger than 400x300mm
require 230VAC for optimal heating.
75°C 75°C - sub-ambient option
X/Y Printing
Speeds
Up to 60 mm/sec Up to 30 mm/sec Up to 15 mm/sec
Enclosure Heated to 55°C Enclosed
*Opt Heated to 55°C
Unenclosed
Motion Control 3-Phase with
Closed-Loop Feedback
0.9° Stepping Motor
Positional Resolution
X/Y/Z in µm
6 / 6 / 1 5 / 5 / 1 1.25 / 1.25 / 1
Positional Accuracy
X/Y/Z in µm
60 / 60 / 10 50 / 50 / 10 12 / 12 / 10
Positional Repeatability
X/Y/Z in µm
60 / 60 / 10 50 / 50 / 10 12 / 12 / 10
Precise X/Y Output
for Bioplots
100 µm lines
200 µm spacing
50 µm lines
100 µm spacing
Precise Z output
for Bioplots
25 µm layers
Tool Positions
Optional
Five
Ten
Four Five
Cold Flow
Options
All EMO, COD, SDS, CSD, DSD and SMH Heads
Warm Flow
Options
All VOL, VCD, KRA and KCD Heads
Hot Flow
Options
All MK1-250, MK2-250 and MK1-450 Heads
Low Power
Laser Options
6w, 450nm, GaN Diode and 2w, 450nm GaN Diode
High Power
Laser Options
40w ~10 µm, CO2 Not Applicable
Spindle Tool
Compatibility
Standard
Three-Phase
Standard Not Applicable
Max Axes X, Y, Z, A, B, C X, Y, Z
Pick & Place
Compatibility
Yes No
Other
Options
Quiet Storm Fan, Microscope

The Hydra Series

The Hydra 16A models have hard resolution (with encoder feedback) of 20 microns in the X and Y, and 0.8 microns in the Z in standard mode. In microstepping mode, we can achieve soft resolution of 4 microns in the X and Y. It comes standard with two tool positions, but can take additional yokes to handle more.

There are three models, as detailed above. The differences are:

  • The Hydra 16A-S (standard) has a 250mm Z and stands on the floor, with the following options:
    • Can take a bed at 400x300mm or 600x400mm at 120°C or 200°C, or a sub-ambient bed;
    • Can take the 40W CO2 laser and 5W, 450nm diode laser;
    • Can take the Pick and Place setup; and
    • Can take the 3-Phase and 1-Phase spindle tools.
  • The Hydra 16A-T (tall) has a 500mm Z and stands on the floor, with the following options:
    • Can take a bed at 400x300mm or 600x400mm at 120°C or 200°C, or a sub-ambient bed;
    • Can take the 5W, 450nm diode laser (NO CO2 LASER);
    • Can take the Pick and Place setup; and
    • Can take the 3-Phase and 1-Phase spindle tools.

The System 30M, 30, and 23

Systems are enclosed Detailed information is on the Systems page. The System 30M replaced the System 30, which replaced the System 23. For you history buffs and Kickstarters.

The Engines

Engines are open-air models. Engines can take up to four heads at once, either working cooperatively on a one print, or making duplicate copies of a small print at the same time. Build volume is 200mm x 200mm x 200mm (X/Y/Z). Detailed information is on the Engines page.

Print Heads

Comparison

The folLowing chart compares and contrasts the various heads:

Printer Model Comparison
Designation Material Viscosity Gear Ratio Volume Reservoir Temperature UV LEDs? Other
MK1-250 1.75mm Filament Standard n/a n/a n/a Up to 250°C n/a For Standard Material
MK2-250 1.75mm Filament Flexible n/a n/a n/a Up to 250°C n/a For Flexible Material
MK1-450 1.75mm Filament Exotic n/a n/a n/a 300 to 450°C n/a For High-Temp Material
SDS-05 Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 05cc Polypropylene Ambient Optional n/a
SDS-10 Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 10cc Polypropylene Ambient Optional n/a
SDS-30 Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 30cc Polypropylene Ambient Optional n/a
SDS-60 Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 60cc Polypropylene Ambient Optional n/a
DSD-50 Two-part Mixtures Low 3:1; 1:1 Ratio 25cc each part Polypropylene Ambient Optional n/a
SMH-2 Two-part Mixtures Low 3:1; Variable Ratio Up to 60cc each part Depends on feeding heads Ambient Optional n/a
HSD-10-Ardes Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 ? 10cc Polyamide Up to 130°C Optional n/a
HSD-30-BD Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 30cc Polypropylene Up to 60°C Optional n/a
RSD-30-BD Liquid, Gel Low 3:1 30cc Polypropylene Down to 5°C Optional n/a
EMO-25 Liquid, Gel, Paste Low to Medium 19:1 25cc Aluminum Ambient Optional n/a
VOL-25 Liquid, Gel, Paste Low to Medium 51:1 25cc Aluminum Up to 100°C Optional n/a
KRA-15 Paste, Clay, Hot Glue Medium to High 100:1 15cc Stainless Up to 200°C* Optional n/a
KR2-15 Paste, Clay, Hot Glue Medium to High 100:1 15cc Stainless Up to 200°C* Optional n/a
LA5-808 Dark, Opaque Laser n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 5w, 808nm
LA6-450 Opaque Laser n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 6w, 4550nm
LI40 Translucent Laser n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 40w, 10μm
LI80 Translucent Laser n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 80w, 10μm
ST1 Waxes, Plastics Spindle Tool n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 5,000 rpm with no load

Note, for crosslinking heads, just see the standard heads and add the UV LED mechanism.

The Cold Flow Process

Cold Flow is our term for fluid or emulsified (non-filament-based) materials which are deposited at room temperature, with or without UV Crosslinking.

For more details, see the Cold and Warm Flow page.

Materials for Cold Flow

The following materials can be printed from Cold Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips.

  • 3P Quick Cure Clay
  • Adhesives
  • Clay, Generic
  • Epoxy, Two-part
  • Fimo
  • Glue
  • Kato
  • Metal Clay, including Precious Metal Clay (PMC)
  • Modeling Clay
  • PEG PolyEthylene Glycol
  • Porcelain
  • Plasticine
  • Play-Doh
  • Resins
  • RTV Silicone
  • Sculpey
  • Sugru
Heads for Cold Flow

Cold Flow is available through the following heads:


The following table compares the properties of the various Cold Flow heads:

Cold Flow Head Properties
Head Container Capacity Nozzle UV Crosslinking
EMO-25 Aluminum 25cc 1.5mm, 2.0mm, Luer No
COD-25 Aluminum 25cc Luer Yes
SDS-5 Syringe 05cc Luer No
CSD-5 Syringe 05cc Luer Yes
SDS-10 Syringe 10cc Luer No
CSD-10 Syringe 10cc Luer Yes
SDS-30 Syringe 30cc Luer No
CSD-30 Syringe 30cc Luer Yes
SDS-60 Syringe 60cc Luer No
CSD-60 Syringe 60cc Luer Yes
Research Papers Citing Hyrel Cold Flow

These are now listed by year here.

The Warm Flow Process

Warm Flow is our term for fluid or emulsified (non-filament-based) materials which are deposited at up to 150°C, with or without UV Crosslinking, depending on the head.

PCL and other medium temperature material can be printed directly from Pellets the size of small peas. If you pulverize or powder your polymer, it is possible to pre-mix the material dry and test different alloys of plastics.

For more details, see the Cold and Warm Flow page.

Materials for Warm Flow

The following materials can be printed from Warm Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips, or may print more easily at higher temperatures.

  • Adhesives
  • Fimo
  • Kato
  • Glue
  • PCL
  • Plasticine
  • Resins
  • Sculpey
  • Wax
Heads for Warm Flow

Warm Flow is available through the following heads:

The following table compares the properties of the various Warm Flow heads:

Warm Flow Head Properties
Head Max Temp Container Capacity Nozzle UV Crosslinking
VOL-25 100°C Aluminum 25cc 1.5mm, 2.0mm, Luer No
VCD-25 100°C Aluminum 25cc Luer Yes
KRA-15 150°C Stainless 15cc 1.5mm, 2mm, Luer No
KCD-15 150°C Stainless 15cc Luer Yes
Research Papers Citing Hyrel Warm Flow

These are now listed by year here.

The Hot Flow Process

Hot Flow is our term for filament-based materials which are deposited at up to 450°C, depending on the head. This process has also been referred to as FFF for Fused Filament Fabrication, or FDM for Fused Deposition Modeling. As of November, 2016, our Hot Flow heads are only for 1.75mm filaments.

For more details, see the Hot Flow page.

Materials for Hot Flow

The following materials can be printed from Hot Flow heads. Note that depending on the characteristics of your material, one head will be a better match than the others. See the "Recommended For" column in the table below.

  • ABS, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
  • BendLay
  • FilaFlex
  • Flex45
  • LayBrick
  • LayWood
  • NinjaFlex
  • Nylon
  • PC, PolyCarbonate
  • PEEK, PolyEther Ether Ketone
  • PET, PolyEthylene Terephthalate
  • PETG, PolyEthylene Terephthalate Glycol-modified
  • PLA, PolyLactic Acid
  • PlastInk Rubber
  • PP, PolyPropylene
  • PVA, PolyVinyl Alcohol
  • T-Glase
Heads for Hot Flow

Hot Flow is available through the following heads:

The following table compares the properties of the various Hot Flow heads, including which heads are recommended for which materials. The MK1 heads drive matieral from one side, with a spring-loaded bearing system to maintain pressure and positioning. The MK2 heads drive the material from both sides, and are designed for more flexible filaments.

Hot Flow Head Properties
Head Min Temp Max Temp Filament Type Nozzle Recommended For
MK1-250 150°C 250°C Standard .35mm, .50mm, .75mm, 1.0mm ABS, LayBrick, LayWood, Nylon, PET, PETG, PETT, PLA, PP, PVA, T-Glase
MK2-250 150°C 250°C Flexible .35mm, .50mm, .75mm, 1.0mm BendLay, FilaFlex, Flex45, NinjaFlex, PlastInk Rubber
MK1-450 300°C 450°C Engineering .50mm PC, PEEK
Research Papers Citing Hyrel Hot Flow

These are now listed by year here.

Other Accessories

Accessories other than print heads are available, some of which take a tool position.

For more details, see the Other Accessories page.

Tool Position Accessories

Lasers

Hot-swappable Lasers are available in the following configurations:

  • The LA5-808 is a diode laser, 5W at 808nm, and due to its wavelength, it is best suited for darker material.
  • The LA6-450 is a diode laser 6W at 450nm, and performs well on opaque material of any color.
  • The LI40 is an integrated 40w CO2 laser, and performs well on translucent as well as opaque material; available on our Hydra models only.
  • The LI80 is an integrated 80w CO2 laser, and performs well on translucent as well as opaque material; available on our Hydra models only.

The Reflectivity and Transparency or Translucency of your material will have a great impact on the effectiveness of the laser. Safety glasses are included with each laser.

Spindle Tools

The ST1 is intended for light drilling and routing operations (especially circuit board work), and provides between 500 and 5000 RMP (depending on load) to a 1/8" chuck. Our Repetrel software can process Gerber and DRL files for the Spindle Tool and/or the Lasers.

The ST3 is presently in testing, but provides more power; available on our Hydra models only.

Other Tool Position Accessories

The following accessories each take up a tool position while performing more passive functions:

  • The Inspector microscope provides magnification.
  • The Quiet Storm fan provides additional cooling.
  • The Tramming Tool, provided with every printer, is used to level the build surface.

Non-Tool Position Accessories

The following non-head accessories are also available:

  • The Feed Chamber Cooling Fan mounts on Hot Flow heads to provide additional cooling to the feed chamber. This is desirable with low temperature filaments like PLA.
  • The Printer Support Kit is included with every printer, and includes a build plate, blue tape, and a variety of handy tools like tweezers, razors, and a spatula.
  • The SDK | Software Developer's Kit provides hardware, software, and the source code for developing your own firmware for your own compatible heads.
  • The LTK | Luer Tip Kit provides an EMO to Luer adapter and a variety of luer lock needles.
  • The Syringe Kit provides syringes in quantity.
  • The Drill Bit Kit provides an assortment of drilling bits and end mills for the Spindle Tool.
  • The Filament Kit provides a variety of filaments to get you started with your printer.